I’m reading ‘Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA‘ by Tim Weiner. The book is incredible in scope and Weiner is ruthless in chronicling all of the miserable failures of the CIA (it’s entire existence according to Weiner). This quote on Allen Dulles, central intelligence director under Eisenhower pretty much sums up how hard Weiner lays into the CIA throughout the whole book.
Over the next eight years, through his devotion to covert action, his disdain for the details of analysis, and his dangerous practice of deceiving the president of the United States, Allen Dulles did untold damage to the agency he had helped to create.”
The book goes over the history of the CIA, which surprisingly enough only got its start after World War II. Theres a lot of history and lessons the country has already learned that seemed to have been forgotten. The most absurd one I’ve come across so far was Eisenhower on the Middle East:
“The president said he wanted to promote the idea of an Islamic jihad against godless communism. ‘We should do everything possible to stress the ‘holy war’ aspect,’ he said at a September 1957 White House meeting…”
How preposterous this statement is made me laugh out loud. Think of how refreshing it would be if those ‘godless communists’ were the main global concern and not Islamic jihadists. It also raised two points that I’ve been thinking about lately.
1) The United States has created many of the opponents that it fights today
2) If you view conflict as zero-sum games, you are bound to replace one enemy with an even more desperate intractable foe.
Hopefully more to come on both of those soon.
Whenever I started to work on a story in Lebanon I would think -how would I explain this to someone who knows little about this Middle East?- and then start writing. Its sometimes easy to forget that everyone doesn’t spend their day reading papers and articles about the region.But for those who want to take the next step to learning about the Middle East it can be daunting, there are so many names, dates and numbers that are used without explination its hard to get started.
I just finished Paul Salem’s (Director of the Carnegie Middle East Center in Beirut) “The Middle East: Evolution of a Broken Regional Order.” At a slim 21 pages it makes for a great brief to get an overview of the recent events that have created the current regional sitation. Definetly worth reading for those who need to get up to speed quickly, are looking for a good place to start reading or just need some type of broad overview of the Middle East.
The Carnegie website has hundreds of their expert’s papers avaiable in full PDFs on their website.
The ones I plan on reading next:
Lebanon’s Sunni Islamists—A Growing Force Omayma Abdel-Latif
Salafism and Radical Politics in Postconflict Algeria Amel Boubekeur
Apologies for not updating sooner, but my 77 days in Lebanon has finally come to a close. I got back to the states a few days ago and I’m finally over the jet lag today. I will definitely miss Lebanon; waking up in the suburbs isn’t quite as exciting as West Beirut. Hopefully I will get back to the region sooner rather than later. I’ll be heading back to Syracuse for my last year in a few weeks, and I’ll start applying for internships, fellowships and grad school (defense and policy studies) soon after.
As for this blog, I’m planning on keeping it running. While I can’t promise post-street clash coverage from Aisha Bakkar; I’m going to try to keep blogging on current events and my recent foreign policy readings. I’m also going to finish out the last two book reviews of the summer in the next week (The Inheritance, Sanger and The Great War for Civilization, Fisk).
Thanks for reading.
I took a trip to the National Museum of Beirut yesterday with a friend from the newspaper. It was a great experience and I would recommend a visit for anyone who’s in Beirut.
It was incredible to see history that goes back continuously for thousands of years. The complexity of the sculptures, mosaics and tools is really humbling. It’s a history that any Lebanese can be proud of.
The museum struck me in particular because after living here for a while I could associate names to places. After I traveling to Byblos a number of times and then going to the museum and seeing a Bronze Age (3200 B.C- 1200 B.C.) artifact from that city, it gave me a sense of the incredible depth of history that is in this area. It also helps put things like the Civil War and local politics into a much broader context that was eye opening for me.
For that reason (for all the would-be travelers out there) I would recommend the national history museum as one of your last stops on your visit, it helps tie a lot of things together.
Theres also fascinating history of how the National Museum survived the Civil War during which time the “green line” dividing east and west Beirut ran right through the museum. The documentary at the museum about preserving the art work hardly does the topic justice (but is worth seeing for cool shots of breaking statues out of their protective layers of concrete). Heres an excerpt from the museum’s website that is much more informative than what they provide in the documentary:
…The first protection measures inside the Museum were taken while fire-shells and moments of truce alternated. Small finds, the most vulnerable objects of the collection, were removed from the showcases and hidden in storerooms in the basement. The latter was walled up banning any access to the lower floors.
On the ground floor, mosaics, which had been fitted in the pavement, were covered with a layer of concrete. Other large and heavy objects, such as statues and sarcophagi, were protected by sandbags. When the situation reached its worst in 1982, the sandbags were replaced by concrete cases built around a wooden structure surrounding the monument… [the rest]
As usual check out Fisk’s “Pity the Nation” and Friedman’s “From Beirut to Jerusalem” for more stories about the National Museum.
ion route between both parts of Beirut during the war.
The fourth edition of the summer reading series is Engaging the Muslim World by Juan Cole. I hadn’t read a whole lot of Cole’s work before this, maybe just his recent Iran stuff, so this a nice change of authors from Friedman last week.
When I read academic books I usually keep a small page of paper with me to jot things down that I want to remember. For this book, I kept a lot of notes. Which isn’t to say that the book was particularly good or bad, but that Cole went after dozens of topics, anything from Energy Independence to Wahhabis, and Syrian Baathists.
The book didn’t quite read like one continuous work rather a series of essays on different topics. It was a little bit disconcerting because even inside each chapter Cole would use ‘breaks’ to jump around to different decades and subtopics inside that chapter.
Because the books includes so many topics, its clearly wasn’t academically exhaustive. Cole sometimes glosses over details to help make his point. A particular reach was his insistence that VP Dick Cheney wanted war with Iraq to secure accesses to Iraqi Oil by American companies. But the books is instructive in pointing out the hypocrisies and incongruity in American foreign policy. Cole points to the lack of logic behind American claims that most Saudi Arabian Wahhabis are radical or the irony when the Ford administration authorized a plutonium reprocessing plant in Iran in the 70’s (Cole is insistent that Iran is not attempting to get a nuclear weapon, a claim that David Sanger in The Inheritance, my next book, strongly disagrees with)
In the end Engaging the Muslim World is a series of reminders about the very western, Americanized way that most people in the U.S. view the world. If you’ve spent your life watching American TV and reading the New York Times, its a great reminder that there are other perspectives out there and American policy isn’t nearly as clear cut as its made out to be.
That being said, Cole uses the end of every chapter to make sweeping recommendations about policy changes and leaves little room for nuance on complex issues, he always seems to have an excuse for what America is doing wrong that makes one ideology not match up with another. But the book is a great jumping off point for a start of a much more through analysis into all the topics Cole covers.
Heres some of the key points that Cole brings up (his ideas not mine):
- U.S. has acted to protect its energy interest in the world, installing and backing up oil regimes (Syria, Lebanon, Iraq). Neomercantalism is dying/dead
- Oil dependency doesnt work, most alternative fuels wont work either
- Solar is the way forward
- U.S. needs better relationship with “Islamic oil”.
- U.S. backed the militant Islamic fighters in the 90’s who are not fought as terrorists
- Muslim world and Western world are equally religious. Secular politics in America is disconected from grass roots America
- Saudi 9/11 connection not plausible. Bin Laden hated Saudi royal family
- King Saud was the counter weight to Nasser
- Wahabis not killing people (very sympathetic to Saudi Arabia)
- Abdullah acts in ways better for Saudi and America than Fahd did
- U.S. surge in Iraq achieved dubious results partially by more ethnic cleansing
- Hypocrcy of not granting Iraqis Assaylum in any reasonable numbers even those who helped Americans
- U.S. ignores leftist insurgents because it doesnt fit the message
- Federally Administered Tribal Area in Pakistan outside of the law, no local administrator. Pashtuns have system of equality
- Pakistan military/intelligence funds the Taliban
- Iraq invasion increased Iran power
- Ahmedinijad not global threat. Khameini holds the cards
- Iran won’t attack Israel
- US nuke approval in Iran in 76
- Great Game (pre-WWI) to partition Iran between British and Russians made Iran deeply suspicious
- Democratically elected Mossadegh deposed in CIA coup bad for relations
- Hezbollah = Small paramilitary
- In the conclusion: Stop being bigots, no more Islamiphobia or American/Islam anxiety, West needs to translate enlightenment ideas and books that aren’t available in the Middle East, engagement is the key, international frustration over Palestinian issue is building, energy demand will become a crisis
Final Rating (out of 5): 3.5
Summer Reading Ratings
Engaging the Muslim World by Juan Cole: 3.5
The Inheritance by David E. Sanger
The Great War for Civilization by Robert Fisk
It can be wildly frustrating to learn Arabic. I’ve studied the language part time, for about 2 years now and situations like this can play out on a regular basis:
I’ve got 20 minutes to get to someplace in Beirut for a story, but I’ve rehearsed the phrase I need for a week, I’ve been practicing the “hah’ the “gha” and the “kha” and this is my chance to use it. I walk up to a taxi and ask him my question…and it ends up having the same effect as speaking in gibberish, he has no idea what I’m saying. Sometimes I get angry and I just want to yell “I”M SPEAKING ARABIC.” But its obvious its not his fault, it’s mine.
It gets discouraging when that situation repeats itself again and again over the course of weeks or months, you can feel like you will never learn enough to speak to anyone in a meaningful way. Thats why run ins with people like Joesph, can be so special.
I was on my way back from work after 3 hours of Arabic class, a trip to a press conference at the Indonesian embassy and writing 2 stories. I was doing my Arabic flash cards, but didn’t feel much like talking to anyone. Thats when I got into a cab with an older taxi driver named Joesph.
After the initial how are yous, Joesph was incredibly excited to learn I spoke Arabic. We talked about where I study Arabic, what I did here and about Beirut. He talked about living abroad for 20 years, moving back two years ago and being an Aounee (supporting Michel Aoun). He spoke slowly and clearly and corrected my pronunciation, when I didn’t understand words he explained them to me by using other Arabic phrases, not speaking English, The whole conversation probably didn’t last more than 10 minutes but it was probably the most encouraging conversation in Arabic I’ve had in a year. In the end I decided to pay him for the cab ride and the Arabic lesson.
My Arabic has slowly gotten better over time, but without people like Joesph learning this language would be so much more impossible than it is already.
I had a story in The Daily Star today about an NGO, Skoun, that helps treat drug addicts and lobbies the government for more treatment and less jail time for addicts. NGOs really fill a huge gap in civil society. I’ve covered events by about a dozen so far and its really interesting to see how prevalent they are. One one hand its a good thing to provide all these services, but on the other it makes people dependent on other countries organizations and individual donors besides the state.
My story in the paper yesterday was on a UNDP report with a section on foreign influence in Lebanon. It was some of the harshest language that I’ve read about the foreign patronage, and especially suprising coming from the UN. Unfortunately it didn’t have a newspeg, but hey you gata fill the paper I guess.
The foreign influence really gets understated, particularly by people with an agenda. You hear people talk about the “Western backed” March 14 coalition (like in my story, not my choice) but really that should read something like “Saudi backed” because of the hundreds of millions of dollars the Saudis possibly used to leverage the campaign. But as usual the truth can’t be summed up into one or two words. Parties that joined either March 8 and 14 had diverse reasons for doing so that reflect local, national, regional and global pressures that are difficult to encapsulate in a phrase.